文章摘要

徐跃权,徐兆英,刘春丽.马丁·施雷廷格的图书馆学思想与贡献[J].中国图书馆学报,2016,42(4):37~50
马丁·施雷廷格的图书馆学思想与贡献
Martin Schrettinger's Thoughts on and Contributions to LibraryScience
投稿时间:2016-02-14  
DOI:
中文关键词: 马丁·施雷廷格  图书馆学史  图书馆学思想史
英文关键词: Martin Schrettinger  History of Library Science  Ideological history of librarianship
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
徐跃权 东北师范大学计算机科学与信息技术学院 吉林 长春 130117  
徐兆英 林工商学院图书馆 吉林 长春 130507 xu1918@aliyun.com 
刘春丽 中国医科大学图书馆 辽宁 沈阳 110122  
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中文摘要:
      马丁·施雷廷格在世界图书馆学史上占据重要地位,他的理论与实践研究成果集中反映在1808—1829年出版的《图书馆学教程》和1834年出版的《图书馆学概览》中。他首创“图书馆学”一词并定义了其概念;构建起以图书馆、图书馆学、图书馆设施的目的、图书馆学的最高原则、图书馆应该满足的文献需求的种类、保障满意程度的一般措施六个基本概念为核心的理论纲领,统领图书馆学的理论建设;他摒弃了当时图书馆图书排架及分类目录必须反映自然秩序的主流做法,提出图书馆的目的就是迅速地满足人们所有的文献需求,并为此创制了世界上最早的主题目录;他还正式倡导建立图书馆学专业教育和专门学校。施雷廷格是现代图书馆学的开创者,其人文主义特征的学术思想对图书馆学的发展具有深远的影响。参考文献36。
英文摘要:
The objectives of this study are to summarize the main contents of Schrettingers doctrine,to reveal Martin Schrettinger’s methodology of the discipline construction,and to establish his historical position as the founder of modern Library Science. We argue in this paper that Schrettinger constructed the “Library Science” as a new discipline with clear theoretical self-consciousness,and his doctrine has the salient feature of unifying humanities,science,and technology.
Schrettinger was clearly aware that the major contemporary issues he faced were how to build good large scale libraries. His purpose of writing the books was to make Library Science as a new independent discipline,and only people who had received specialized training in Library Science were capable of the task of building large-scale libraries. He was the first to propose the idea of founding Library Science education based on large-scale libraries in 1814. .
Schrettinger consciously implemented the humanistic spirit of the European Enlightenment into the propositions of Library Science,particularly into the three core concepts:“library”,“Library Science” and “the supreme principle of Library Science”. According to Schrettingers definitions,a library is a large entity of books,whose purpose is to rapidly satisfy all literature needs. Hence,Library Science is all the precepts necessary to the practical organization of a library,provided that they are based on sound principles and reducible to one supreme principle. Since literature needs expressed to a library can only be satisfied through the library collections,each library facility should be designed to serve the purpose of locating as quickly as possible the book desired;this certainly should be the supreme principle of Library Science. .
Following the ideal paradigm of natural sciences,Schrettinger consciously built Library Science by attempting to derive all the propositions of the discipline logically from the supreme principle of Library Science. Of particular interest is that he formulated the principle from the angle of the literature needs of people,and not from the physical perspective of things. In order to expand the content of each part of Library Science,he also carefully built up a conceptual framework that consisted of six basic concepts: Libraries;Library Science;the purpose of library facilities;the supreme principles of Library Science;the needs that library collections should meet;the general measures to safeguard satisfaction. It is from the internal logical relationships among these concepts one can deduce the various theoretical programs for the contents of Library Science. .
Schrettinger’s doctrine also suggests a technological aspect of Library Science,which is reflected in cataloging,subject indexing,classification and other technical methods or tools. He was keenly aware of the conflicting nature of the purposes of classification and the literature search needs of people. To better serve people’s searching needs,he created the first subject catalog in the world where broad classification catalogs were divided into major subject catalogs. 36 refs.
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