文章摘要

杨絮,于良芝.兰开斯特的预言与iSchool的抱负:跨时代的话语分析[J].中国图书馆学报,2018,44(3):4~20
兰开斯特的预言与iSchool的抱负:跨时代的话语分析
Lancaster's Prophecy and iSchool's Aspiration: A Cross time Discourse Analysis
投稿时间:2018-02-04  
DOI:
中文关键词: 兰开斯特  图书馆  图书馆情报学  话语分析  iSchool
英文关键词: Lancaster  Library  Library and Information Science  Discourse analysis  iSchool
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作者单位E-mail
杨絮 北京大学信息管理系 北京 100871 dorayang1996@pku.edu.cn,dorayang1996@pku.edu.cn 
于良芝 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071  
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中文摘要:
      以美国著名图书馆情报学家兰开斯特在20世纪下半叶提出的图书馆消亡预言和21世纪初至今iSchool联盟的使命陈述和研究文献为分析对象,采用福柯式话语分析方法,分析这两组语料对“图书馆”和“图书馆情报学”的意义建构策略及结果。研究发现,对于“图书馆”,兰开斯特的预言将场所性、机构性打造为其核心定义要素,隐性成就了“图书馆=实体图书馆”的意义,排除了图书馆立足于其功能进行形态转变的可能性,并在此基础上预测了“图书馆”消亡的未来。对于“图书馆情报学”,iSchool运动话语持续地将其建构为“受实体图书馆机构视野局限的,以图书馆员培养为目标的,缺乏就业竞争力的狭隘学科”,并因此赋予其iField发展战略以合法性。这些学科流行话语及其意义建构,在很大程度上瓦解了本学科的两大核心概念——“图书馆”与“图书馆情报学”,潜伏着十分严重的学科/职业自我消解风险。图2。表5。参考文献37。
英文摘要:

    
Against the increasing marginalization of libraries and the Library and Information Science discipline (LIS) in the iSchool movement, this paper performs a Foucauldian discourse analysis of Lancaster's famous prophecy of the extinction of libraries, the mission statements of iSchools and the literature associated with the iSchool Movement. The study aims to reveal the particular meaning of “libraries” constructed by Lancaster that legitimated his prophecy, the meaning of “Library and Information Science” constructed by the iSchool movement that legitimated its aspiration to replace LIS by iField, the affinity between the two meaning constructions and the impact of all these on LIS.

The study shows that Lancaster, in associating libraries with the“permanent archive of professional achievement”, “permanent record of human achievement as reflected in books, periodicals, and other types of physical collections”, and disassociating them with “access to information resources”,imposed on libraries the meaning of “library=physical library”. He also alluded to this meaning in his statements about “librarians” and “the paperless information system”. In so doing, he implicitly excluded some of the meanings that the library has lived through in its over five thousand years of existence, such as the meanings of the library as society's mechanism to ensure effective information search and access and the meaning of it as a living organism. It is Lancaster's imposed meaning of libraries that legitimated his prophecy of their extinction.

Interestingly, the iSchool Movement advocates rarely use the term “Library and Information Science” when they talk about the reconfiguration of information related discipline. Whenever they have to refer to the discipline on which the LIS schools and their education are based, they either use the term “Library Science” or “librarianship”. In this way, they have implicitly asserted that “library and information science=library science=librarianship”. They have also alluded to this meaning in their criticism of the status quo of LIS education. Moreover, in attacking LIS education's focus on the institute of library, this criticism has also equated “the library” with “the library institution”, hence with “the physical library”. In this way, the iSchool Movement advocates have accomplished the following meaning construction: “library and information science=library science=librarianship=discipline about the library institute=discipline about the physical library”. It is this imposed meaning of the LIS discipline that legitimated iSchool Movement's agenda to reconfigure it into iField.

It is clear that the central meaning construction that legitimated both Lancaster's prophecy and iSchool's aspiration is to treat “the library” and “the physical library” as identical. This restricted meaning construction threatens not only the existence of the library, but also the sustainability of the LIS discipline. 2 figs. 5 tabs. 37 refs.


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