李斯,陈一.政府数据开放的感知责任风险及规制研究[J].中国图书馆学报,2022,48(6):97~112
The Perceived Accountability Risks and Regulation of Open Government Data
政府数据开放的感知责任风险及规制研究
Received:December 29, 2021  Revised:November 02, 2022
DOI:
Key words:Open government data  Perceived risk  Accountability risk  Risk elimination  Information management
中文关键词:  政府数据开放  感知风险  责任风险  风险规制  信息管理
基金项目:
Author NameAffiliation
LI Si 1.北京大学信息管理系 北京 100871
2.武汉大学信息管理学院 湖北 武汉 430072 
CHEN Yi 1.北京大学信息管理系 北京 100871
2.武汉大学信息管理学院 湖北 武汉 430072 
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Abstract:
Open government data is of great significance for promoting economic growth and the modernization of social governance. However,as a complex task,it brings challenges to the practice of government information management. Many risk factors limit the breadth and depth of open data. The paper aims to identify the perceived accountability risk factors of public officials,reveal the formation of perceived accountability risk and the influence on open data decision making,propose strategies to eliminate risks,and promote government agencies to provide more data.
Adopting grounded theory,this study interviewed 22 stakeholders to collect data. Through continuous coding,this study identified the main categories and then constructed theoretical models.
The results show that among public officials,there are three main types of perceived accountability risks:accountability risks caused by data leakage,accountability risks caused by data utilization,and power accountability risks. The complexity of data,weak operability,and uncertainty of user behavior are the main reasons why public officials perceive the risk of being held accountable. Affected by this risk,public officials are simultaneously motivated to promote the public interest and avoid being blamed,which reflects an inconsistency between being responsible for the public interest and being responsible for organizational interests. Public officials also have a biased perception of accountability risks,which magnifies the possibility of the risks and the severity of the consequences. To reduce the negative impact of the perceived risk of being held accountable on public officials decision making,it is necessary not only to improve the operability of open data but also to establish a reasonable right and responsibility system and adopt risk communication means to reduce risk cognition deviation.
This paper reveals the internal logic of the low degree of open data caused by public officials perception of accountability risks,and provides a process explanation beyond causality for understanding the relationship between public officials perceived accountability risks and open data behavior. The field of library and information science should actively participate in the research on the policies and mechanisms of open government data from a professional perspective to help promote the information opening and sharing of the whole society. 1 fig. 2 tabs. 37 refs.
中文摘要:
      政府数据开放对于推动经济增长和推进社会治理现代化具有重要意义,但其作为一项复杂任务给政府信息管理实践带来了挑战,诸多风险因素限制了数据开放的广度和深度。从执行数据开放的公职人员主观视角识别感知责任风险,揭示感知责任风险的形成以及对数据开放决策的影响机制,提出风险规制策略,对于推进政府数据开放,提升政府数据管理水平,具有理论和实践意义。本文采用扎根理论方法,访谈22位相关人员获取研究数据;通过编码确定主要类别,进一步揭示感知责任风险的形成过程以及对数据开放决策的影响。研究发现,公职人员感知责任风险因素主要有三类:数据泄露带来的责任风险、数据利用带来的责任风险、权力被问责风险;公职人员对责任风险存在认知偏差,放大了风险发生的可能性与后果严重性;公职人员同时具有促进公共利益和规避责任的动机,反映出对公共利益负责和对组织利益负责不一致的现象。建议:对公职人员感知责任风险的规制不仅要提高数据开放的可操作性,还需要建立合理的权责制度,采取沟通手段减少主观风险感知的影响。图情领域应从专业视角积极参与政府数据开放的政策和机制研究,助力推动全社会的信息开放和共享。图1。 表2。 参考文献37。
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